According to clinical manifestations, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can be classified as a mild, moderate, or severe disease, which is
significant for treatment selection. Musculoskeletal manifestations are considered mild, but in practice, they can often persist, relapse, and be
resistant to treatment, requiring the use of multiple therapy modalities and potent immunosuppressants. Musculoskeletal manifestations
occur in approximately 95% of patients, with around 50% experiencing them as the initial presenting symptom [1,2]. These manifestations can be symptomatic (clinically recognizable) or asymptomatic,
causing significant disability and socio-economic consequences .