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International Journal of Clinical Images and Medical Reviews

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International Journal of Clinical Images and Medical Reviews

ABOUT US

International Journal of Clinical Images and Medical Reviews (ISSN 2771-6309) is a peer reviewed journal dedicated to publishing clinical images, Case Reports, Researches, Reviews, Mini Reviews, Short communications etc, from all sectors of science and medicine. The goal of this magazine is to disseminate information about new discoveries and treatments in science and medicine and accepts topics such as surgery, histology and cytology, oncology, dentistry, immunology, diagnostic method, clinical case, transplantation, ophthalmology, forensic science and all medicine-related fields.

International Journal of Clinical Images and Medical Reviews is open access journal, a peer reviewed journal with a large intellectual impact. Before publishing a manuscript, it goes through a rigorous editorial review procedure. The authors are encouraged to provide the manuscripts in accordance with the guidelines. The work can be submitted online using an online submission system. The manuscripts are peer-reviewed before being verified by the editors' panels. Finally, in order to preserve the highest quality of the information in this journal, only the quality contents are published.

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Acute Kidney injury and COVID-19 infection

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infection that has been one of the most frequently discussed medical as a socio-economic issues over the past two years. Common risk factors for COVID-19 infection and its severe course include age, race, male gender, chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus (DM), immunode- ficiency, kidney and liver disease, obesity/overweight, smoking and polypharmacy.
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2022.02.001077

The using of biphasic calcium sulfate in two-stage treatment of odontogenic fibroma of the mandible – case report

Among the patients of the Oral Surgery Department, a significant per- centage are people requiring treatment due to the diagnosis of odon- togenic cysts in the jaw bones. Most of these cysts, of various etiolo- gies, require surgical treatment. The most common lesions of various origins include the germinal cyst, while the broadly understood root cyst, as a chronic inflammatory pathological condition, may constitute the highest percentage of recognizable lesions of this type in the jaw bones. Statistically, it is over 60% of odontogenic cysts and over 50% of bone cysts[1,2].
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2022.02.001075

Dietary Mineral Imbalance among Primary School Children in Benghazi

Childhood is the entire blueprint of an individual's future life, evi- dences show that experiences in early and middle childhood are extremely important for a child’s healthy development and lifelong learning. How a child develops during this time affects future cog- nitive, social, emotional, language, and physical development, which in turn influences school readiness and later success in life 1-3
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2022.02.001074

Chronic GI Bleeding as the Only Presenting Sign of AML in an Elderly Patient

While acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains a common type of leukemia in adults, it is a relatively rare cancer diagnosis overall, re- sponsible for only one percent of adult cancer deaths in the United States.1-3 AML stems from the malignant clonal expansion of undif- ferentiated myeloid precursor cells, resulting in ineffective hematopoi- esis and bone marrow failure.1,2 The production of malfunctioning white blood cells can cause cytopenia’s, creating downstream symp- toms related to anemia and thrombocytopenia.1-4 However, a handful of individuals may be asymptomatic upon diagnosis with isolated lab abnormalities.
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2022.02.001073

SPONTANEOUS REGRESSION OF ELTROMBOPAG INDUCED BONE MARROW FIBROSIS, IN A PATIENT WITH CHRONIC IMMUNE THROMBOCYTOPENIA

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disor- der that lessens the production of platelets. ITP is a syndrome char- acterized by: (i) thrombocytopenia (platelet count less than 100,000/ mm3); (ii) shortened platelet survival; (iii) presence of antiplatelet an- tibody in the plasma; (iv) normal or increased megakaryocytes in the bone marrow [1]. Patients are over 60 years of age with no predilection for sex and the chronic form being the most common.
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2022.02.001072

Postpartum Depression: A Comprehensive Review

Postpartum depression is a form of depression, a mental illness, dis- covered to be common lately in birth mothers affecting roughly 15% to a minimum of 10%. Such a period is very critical due to its nature and effect on Mother-baby bonding and Child’s long-term Devel- opment. However, following depressions are found to be very inad- equately diagnosed and nursed. According to the survey carried out in this regard revealed that halves of such conditions are unidentified by concerned Practitioners or medical Professionals in-charge and revealed that most of the diagnosed mothers, do not follow recom- mended treatment accordingly.
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2022.02.001071

Prevalence of cervical epithelial cell dysfunction in Papanicolaou smears reports in low-risk population referred to Imam Reza hospital

Cervical cancer is one of the most preventable malignancies among human cancers. Infection of the uterine cervix with human papilloma- virus (HPV) is the main causative agent of cervical cancer [1]. About 15 high-risk types of human papilloma virus have been identified, which are responsible for cervical neoplasia and other related cancers [2]. Cervical cancer with worldwide distribution, though a prevent- able disease, is one of the leading causes of cancer death in women.
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2022.02.001070

The Effect of Gestational Diabetes on the α7 and α4 Subtypes of nAChRs in Human Placenta

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is developed among those preg- nant women with inadequate pancreas function that cannot overcome resistance to insulin [1]. GDM increases blood glucose level that can be initiated or diagnosed for the first time in pregnancy. It was esti- mated that diabetes affects up to 15 % of pregnant women worldwide [2]. Moreover, its prevalence is increasing in all parts of the world [3].
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2022.02.001069

Myocardial infarction following COVID-19 vaccination

The rapidly spreading COVID-19 virus has killed millions(1). Vac- cination is the best way to prevent severe illness and death(2). Local reactions at the injection site and nonspecific systemic effects (myal- gia, chills, fatigue, headache, and fever) are common side effects of this vaccine(3).
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2022.02.001068

MAIN LEFT CORONARY PRINZMETAL ANGINA: A RARE CAUSE OF ACUTE MYOCARDIAL IN- FARCTION AND DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY.

Prinzmetal's Angina is a rare cause of chest pain. It occurs when a cor- onary artery goes into spasm, usually among young patients leading to angina pectoris with electrocardiographic changes. 1The spasm can be focal or diffuse and affect the epicardial or microvascular coronary arteries, in addition there is a risk of sudden death, acute coronary syndrome, syncope and arrhythmias.
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2022.02.001067

Clinicopathological analysis of 20 cases of subcutaneous sarcoidosis in South Korea

Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder of unclear ori- gin.1 The diagnosis of sarcoidosisis well established when clinical and radiological findings are supported by histological evidence of non- caseating granulomas in one or more tissues.2 It involves mainly the lungs, mediastinal and peripheral lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes and parotid glands.
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2022.02.001066

Effects Of Ethnicity On Allogenic Stem Cell Mobilization

Allogeneic stem cell transplant (ASCT) is a treatment method for var- ious malignant and non-malignant hematologic disorders. The plu- ripotent hematopoietic stem cells are usually obtained from the bone marrow or peripheral blood of a donor. The results of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) compatible sibling are much better.
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2022.02.001065

PAEDIATRIC CUTANEOUS MASTOCYTOSIS : REPORT OF 3 CASES

Mastocytosis is characterized by an abnormal mast cell infiltrates. It can occur at any age. Severity of this disease ranges from fleetingly benign to aggressively malignant contitions. Cutaneous mastocytosis is most common in children. About 50% of affected children develop typical skin lesions before the age of 6 months.
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2022.02.001064

Sickle cell disease and projection into future in African patients living in France, born in Africa and those born in France from African Parents

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a serious chronic disease that manifests itself from early childhood with intense pain, chronic anemia, infec- tions to which can be added acute and chronic complications affecting the brain, heart, lungs, and kidneys, among others. All organs can be affected. A genetic disease, it is transmitted to the child by both par- ents, each carrying the S gene for sickle cell disease.
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2022.02.001063

A Technique for Prosthetically Aligning Multiple Non-Parallel Implants

Placing implants in a proper prosthetic position and direction is es- sential to achieve a successful long-lasting restoration.1 However, this is sometimes difficult to achieve because of anatomical or technical difficulties and angled abutments are required to correct the unfavor- able alignment.
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2022.02.001062

Importance of Maintaining and Improving Immune Function by Physical Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic

In early December 2019, a novel coronavirus disease, designated as COVID-19, came into light in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China. With the first pneumonia cases of unknown origin being identified, it has be- come a pandemic worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared it as a potential threat to the world population, and a pub- lic health emergency of international concern on January 30, 2020.
   

Combined cervical laceration and bladder rupture: a case report of an unusual complica- tion of precipitated labor

Spontaneous bladder rupture following normal vaginal delivery is a surgical postpartum emergency. Previous cesarean section, vacuum/ forceps-assisted vaginal deliveries, and distended bladder compressed by engaged head in birth canal are all risk factors for bladder injuries in healthy parturient women 1.
   

Development of a novel dental thermal imaging application

Thermography is a process where a (thermal) camera captures and generates an image by using infrared radiation, emitted from an ob- ject [1]. The image provides an opportunity to visibly record invisible (to the human eye) infrared energy or heat. Thermography is non- invasive, non-contact, user-friendly and a portable imaging method and has been used in various industrial fields, such as engineering and construction.
   

Retained Severed Radial Arterial Catheter

The radial artery is the most frequently utilized site for arterial can- nulation due to accessibility and safety, with approximately 8 million catheters placed per year in the USA.1 Radial artery cannulation is associated with a major complication rate of less than 1%. While the most common complication is temporary occlusion (19%), common complications such as thrombosis.
   

Validation of regional wall motion abnormality assessment methods based on coronary CT- angiography with left ventricular function regarding prediction of hemodynamically rel- evant stenoses with instantaneous wave-free ratio

Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is the gold standard for diag- nostic and treatment of CAD in high-risk patients [1]. Patients with stable angina or silent ischaemia undergo revascularization therapy when ischaemia or a hemodynamically relevant stenosis are detected [2]. The DEFINE-FLAIR and iFR-SWEDEHEART randomized tri- als demonstrated similar outcomes in FFR (fractional flow reserve) and iwFR (instantaneous wave-free ratio) guided revascularizations in patients with intermediate-grade stenosis [3, 4].
   

Acute tetraparesis revealing acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapse: a case report and literature review

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer of childhood and an important cause of death from cancer during the first two decades of life [1]. Global incidence rates have been estimated to be between 1.08 to 2.12 per 100,000 person-years, the condition being four times more frequent in childhood than in adulthood [2]. Recent advances in the fields of diagnostics and therapeutics have improved prognostic outcomes in patients.
   

The social effects and potential value of combination of Chinese herbal medicine with Inter- net hospitals during the COVID-19 epidemic

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 out- breaks first in China on December 2019. Unfortunately, because the virus shows the characteristics of rapid human-to-human transmis- sion, a total of 8,569,962 cases were confirmed and 457,388 deaths were happened worldwide as of June 20. In consequence, public’s health-related fears are also fueled, and WHO defines COVID-19 as a pandemic.
   

VACTERL Association in an 18 Year Old Teenager with Covid-19 like Symptoms and Mul- tiple Neurologic Features

VACTERL association is a non-random association of multiple birth defects that affects two or more body organs [1, 2]. VACTERL is de- fined by the concurrence of at least three of the following component features: vertebral anomalies (V), anal atresia (A), cardiac malforma- tions (C), Tracheoesophageal fistula (TE), renal dysplasia (R) and limb abnormalities (L).
   

A case report on primary tuberculosis of glans penis-a rare presentation

Tuberculosis is a bacterial infectious disease caused by Mycobacteri- um tuberculosis [1, 2]. This bacteria is mostly transmitted through the respiratory route. On clinical manifestation, pulmonary tuberculosis makes up 70% of cases, and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis 10-30%.
   

Progress related in genetic research on Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease (KD), also known as the cutaneous and mucosal lym- phoid syndrome (MCLS), it is a kind of acute, self-limiting vasculitis, often found in infants under 5 years old, and it is also one of the main causes of acquired heart disease in children。It was first reported by the Japanese doctor Kawasaki (Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki) in 1967.
   

WILKIE’S SYNDROME – A CASE REPORT

Wilkie’s syndrome or Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) syndrome is characterized by compression of the third portion of the duodenum caused by a hyperacute angle (<22–25°) between the SMA and the aorta. This leads to the classic presenting symptoms of severe epigas- tric abdominal pain, postprandial fullness, early satiety and vomiting. Sometimes pain can be aggravated with lying supine and relieved in knee chest position, a maneuver that increases the aortomesenteric angle with subsequent relief of bowel obstruction.
   

Brain MR imaging findings in children with congenital muscular dystrophies

Congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders presenting early in life during infancy or soon after birth with muscle weakness and hypotonia, sometime associated to severe brain involvement and histologically presenting with dystrophic lesions. They are classified on the basis of the clinical features, pathologic findings and pattern of inheritance. In fact most of these disorders are inherited and linked to specific genes. Several CDMs classifications have been proposed.
   

One case of congenital adrenal cortical hyperplasia with 17-hydroxylase deficiency

Congenitaladrenalhyperplasia (CAH) [1] is an autosomal recessive disorder causing associated enzyme deficiency or defects in the ad- renal cortical hormone synthesis pathway due to genetic mutations. Resistance of cortisol biosynthesis causes excessive secretion of corticotropin-releasinghormone and CRH) and adrenocorticotropichormone (ACTH).
   

Cancer Drug Pricing in the United States

Over the past three decades an important pattern regarding the cost of cancer treatment has arisen the medical costs of cancer have nearly doubled, with the price of patented cancer drugs experiencing a 5 to 10-fold increase between 2000 and 2014 itself.
   

Cowden Syndrome: A Case Report

Cowden syndrome (CS) is characterized by the presence of multiple hamartomas in various parts of the body, especially the skin, with mu- cocutaneous lesions of diverse presentation. The estimated prevalence is one in 1 million in the general population, and it is a very rare con- dition. There is a preponderance with females, especially Caucasians.
   

A review of photodynamic therapy as a prevention modality for actinic keratoses and non- melanoma skin cancers in immunocompetent patients and immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients

The incidence of precancerous actinic keratoses and non-melanoma skin cancers has been increasing worldwide because of several factors such as skin tone, age, and primarily, exposure to ultraviolet radiation [1]. Actinic keratoses constitute a spectrum of skin lesions that form as rough, scaly macules or patches on the skin that have the potential to develop into a squamous cell carcinoma if left without intervention.
   

The incidence and mortality of COVID-19 related TB infection in Sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused sig- nificant morbidity and mortality all over the world, with total con- firmed cases of 296,496,809 globally and 5,462,631 deaths in January 2022 [1]. In African region, 7,493,439 confirmed cases are already re- corded, among them, 154, 837 deaths in January 2022.
   

Treatment and the Current Concept of Relapse, in Substance Use Disorder

Currently, "Substance Use Disorder" (SUD) is characterized by an inability, consistent withdrawal, loss of inhibitory control of the desire for Substance Abuse (SA), causing impairment in behavior, decreased ability to recognize significant problems, due to pathological behavior itself, deficits in interpersonal re- lationships, and dysfunctional emotional responses.
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2022.02.001035

Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) patients Caused by Ventricular Tachycardia with ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) is a common cause of acute chest pain and is a leading cause of in-hospital cardiac arrest. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) are considered as STEMI equivalent.1,2 Prompt high-quality cardiopulmonary resusci- tation (CPR) and early defibrillation is mandatory to increase survival in sudden cardiac arrest patients caused by pulseless ventricular tachy- cardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF).
   

Endocarditis on Top of a Subaortic Membrane Causing Cerebral and Coronary Embolization: Case report

Discrete subaortic membrane (DSM) represents a subvalvular fibromuscular ring beneath the aortic valve [1]. It is consid- ered the second most common cause of subaortic stenosis among children accounting for 14% of cases; however, few reports are available about it in adults.
   

Correlation between left atrial electromechanical delay and degree of left ventricular dia- stolic dysfunction in patient with sinus rhythm and preserved systolic function

Assessment of LV diastolic dysfunction in patient presenting with symptoms of dyspnea or heart failure is an important part of echo- cardiographic study. In 2016 An Update from American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) recommended Several two-dimensional (2D) and Doppler parameters to grade diastolic dysfunction.
   

Electron spin aspects of Ru and V=O complexes for drugs

In the field of biology, drugs, and bioinorganic materials, magnetism or spin states may be an important physical viewpoint such as blood under magnetic field and magnetic controlled DDS. Magnetic role and detection of hybrid systems of metal complexes and proteins will be mentioned in this short review.
   

Calvarial Tuberculosis

A 19-year-old boy presented with status epilepticus. Computed tomography of the brain showed a big, multilobular mass, with peripheral oedema in the frontal lobe which was enhanced peripherally after intravenous administration of a contrast agent. The mass penetrated the frontal bone and extended subcutaneously. He immediately underwent right decompression craniectomy.
   

Sexual differences of skull asymmetry in Carollia brevicauda (Phyllostomidae: Carollinae) from Colombia

There are three main types of bilateral asymmetry: directional asym- metry (DA), fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and antisymmetry (AS). DA is a pattern where left and right sides consistently differ from each oth- er. FA is present when there are subtle non-directional differences between sides.
   

Coral reef lymphatic malformation: A new clinical phenotype

A 15-year-old girl of gypsy ethnicity presented with a slow-growing exophytic lesion present since birth on the lateral aspect of the right thigh. It caused mild local discomfort. Physical examination revealed a 6 cm brown multilobulated mass.
   

Brain MRI Outcomes Following Darbepoetin Administration in Newborns Undergoing Hypothermia for Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy (DANCE trial)

Neonatal encephalopathy due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an important worldwide cause of mortality and morbidity with an incidence of 1 to 6 per 1,000 live births. HIE occurs sec- ondary to inadequate brain blood and oxygen supply and can result in focal or diffuse injury.
   

Caregiving of Patients Living with Mental Illness-An experience from Rural Community

Mental health is one of the critical health requirements that society needs to address in the present century. Around 14% of the global dis- ease burden is caused by mental disorders and one of the 10 leading causes of disability in Asia is mental illness [1]. It is estimated that 1 in every 4 families has a member suffering from a mental health disorder [2].
   

Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of retromolar region –A clinico-pathological study

Among all craniofacial malignancy prevalence of salivary gland tumor is 3-5% including both major and minor salivary gland (14-22%),re- markably most of the minor salivary gland tumors appear malignant in nature. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most fre- quent malignant tumor occurring in the salivary glands, usually drawn the researcher’s attention for it’s exceptional biologic features.
   

The effect of vitamin d and parathyroid hormone level on the number of cd 34 stem cells after mobilization regime in patients with multiple myelom and non hodgkin lymphoma

Multiple Myeloma (MM) and Non hodgkin lymphoma are among the most common types of cancer. MM is characterized by neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells originating from a single clone producing monoclonal immunoglobulin.
   

Imaging side effects and complications of antineoplastic therapy in gastrointestinal tract- A pictorial review

Newer biologic drugs and immunomodulatory agents, as well as more tolerated and effective radiation therapy schemes have reduced treat- ment toxicity in oncology patients. The treatment are more precisely and personalized.
   

Rare birds in gynecologic oncology: ultrasound, hysteroscopic and pathologic features of an endometrial neuroendocrine carcinoma with extremely poor prognosis

Neuroendocrine tumors of the female reproductive tract account for about 2% of all gynecologic cancers and the features of each subtype are similar to those of their counterparts arising from other body sites. NECa (Neuroendocrine carcinoma) represents 0.8% of endometrial cancers and behaves aggressively with a propensity for systematic spreading and poor prognosis.
   

Sexual head profile differences in celoid horses assessed by geometric morphometrics

The use of shape analysis is one approach to understanding the causes of variation and the morphological transformation of animals due to selective breeding. Head shape plays a prominent part in the definition of equine breeds.
   

Atraumatic tooth extraction with immediate implant installation: case report

At the end of 1970s, a technique called immediate dental implant (IDI) was developed with the objective of installing the dental implant im- mediately after a dental surgical practice of extraction. Currently, in cases of single tooth loss in the esthetic area, the installation of a dental implant at the same time of tooth extraction, is the technique that has become the first option for improving the stability of the alveolar ridge.
   

Reporting of exercise descriptors and variables in resistance training interventions for lower limb tendinopathy: Protocol for a scoping review applying the Consensus on Exercise Re- porting Template and Toigo and Boutellier Framework

Tendinopathy represents a spectrum of potential changes to healthy tendons, leading to tendon damage and disease, with changes char- acterised by abnormal tendon composition and cellularity, ultimately leading to altered tendon microstructure.
   

Oral lichen planus - Review on etiopathogenesis and management

Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the skin and the mucus membrane. Oral lichen planus (OLP), the mucosal counterpart of cutaneous lichen planus, the buccal mucosa, tongue and the gingiva are commonly involved although other sites may be rarely affected.
   

Study of the effect of high blood pressure on the kidney in children with COVID-19

The symptoms of COVID-19 viral disease, generally ranging from mild to moderate flu-like conditions to critical situation connected with acute respiratory distress syndrome and cytokine storm with de- creased adaptive immune response, portending high morbidity and mortality.
   

Cancer and virtual reality vr, the great challenge of the century

The number of new cases of cancer is constantly increasing around the world. The lengthening of life expectancy and therefore the aging of the population largely explain this increase in the number of can- cers, in particular (prostate cancer in men, breast cancer in women, colorectal or gastric cancers).
   

Importance of maintaining and improving immune function by diet, nutrition and exercise before specific vaccinations and therapeutic drugs for COVID-19

In March 2021, vaccination against COVID-19 had just started in Ja- pan. At that time, there were no sufficient therapeutic agents other than conventional anti-inflammatory steroid.
   

Public healthcare facilities and its utilization: Bangladesh perspective

Bangladesh encompassed over 160 million population in 2018 as stat- ed by the last Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) [1]. The country has experienced outstanding headway concerning maternal and child health between 1994 and 2014.
   

Maxillary sinus osteoma: A case report

Osteomas are tumors that generally develop in the upper airways, are pathological entities that occur sporadically in the craniofacial region, can be single or multiple, is a benign osteogenic lesion with slow and progressive growth.
   

Hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome: One case, multiple lessons

Ovarian cancer is one the most common gynecological cancers Epithelial ovarian cancer is the commonest sub-type. Between 10 and 15% of all ovarian cancers occur secondary to a mutation in a cancer susceptibility gene.
   

A rare cause of Transient ischemic attack in a young patient: left ventricular non-compaction with a voluminous thrombus

A 25-year-old man was admitted in our department for management of a transient ischemic attack. It’s a patient without prior medical history.
   

Acute pancreatitis in Thalassemia post allogeneic stem cell transplant with Cyclosporine-A as a possible etiology: a report of two cases

This report highlights the importance of suspecting pancreatitis in a paediatric thalassemia patient post allogeneic stem cell transplant with cyclosporine - A as possible causative factor. CSA reintroduction can be attempted with careful monitoring after recovery.
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2021.01.001001

Risk of self-injury by patients using video otoendoscopes aimed at home market

We have recently become aware of new small (2.2mm to 5.5mm) ear wax removal endoscopes (similar to otoendoscopes) aimed at the home market.
   

Localised Cutaneous Amyloidosis of the Glans Penis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Amyloidosis is a notable cause of morbidity, and in some cases mortal- ity within the developed world. Urological presentations of systemic or localised amyloidosis are rare, with primary penile amyloidosis being poorly reported in the literature.
   

Robotic-Assisted Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Interbody Fusion (TLIF) Using A New Hands-Free 3D Digital Microscope with Head-Mounted Display (HMD): Technical Note

Since the 1970s, the operating microscope (OM) has been a standard tool for visualization and illumination of the surgical field during spi- nal microsurgery. However, some limitations have been documented, e.g., the limited movability of the binocular lenses and discomfort experienced by surgeons due to the abnormal postures required, and efforts have been made to replace the OM with exoscopic and digi- tal systems.
   

An ‘Uncommon early lineage switch’ in an MLL rearranged adult B-lineage Acute Lympho- blastic Leukemia to Mixed-phenotypic acute leukemia (B/Myeloid)

Lineage switch is an infrequent phenomenon with an incidence of ~ 0.6% of all de novo leukemias and seen in almost 6% of relapsed cases. This phenomenon is observed following therapy or at the time of relapse. Switch in lineage tends to occur in younger patients and is associated with particularly poor outcomes.
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2021.01.001003

Uvular injury after double lumen tube insertion: A rare cause of persistent postoperative sore throat

D.Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a common complaint with an incidence of 24-100% [1] that occurs following placement of airway devices in patients administered general anaesthesia.
   

Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: Description of an Atypical Case

Headache is a frequent reason consulting physicians in pediatric pa- tients. Headaches appear in about 37-51% of patients younger than 7 years and about 57-82% of patients under 15. Chronic headaches are more infrequent, with 2.5% of kids under 7 and 15% of teenagers under 15 suffering from this ailment.
   
DOI: 10.55920/IJCIMR.2021.01.001001

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